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【欧宝体育平台】在印度,娶一个女生能拿多少彩礼钱?



发布日期:2021-03-13 01:35:02 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

Author: Dmitry

作者:德米特里

Drafting: Sun Lu / Proofreading: Cat Stu / Editor: Yakult

起草人:孙璐/校对:Cat Stu /编辑:Yakult

If there are a few destiny nodes in a person's life, marriage must be one of the important ones, so a sense of ritual is essential.

如果一个人的生活中只有几个命运节点,那么婚姻必定是其中重要的一环,因此仪式感至关重要。

In China, common marriage ceremonies include appointment, return, reception, wedding banquet, wedding travel, etc. A complete wedding takes three to five days and dozens of processes.

在中国,常见的结婚仪式包括约会,回程,接待,婚礼宴会,婚礼旅行等。完整的婚礼需要三到五天的时间,需要数十个过程。

Modern Chinese weddings often combine Chinese and Western features

现代中式婚礼经常结合中西特色

Many traditional processes still remain

许多传统流程仍然存在

(Photo: Mizuki Qingxin photo/Picture Chong Creative)▼

(摄影:水木清馨摄/图崇创意)▼

Among them, the most characteristic of the bride is the bride price. The bride price is the beginning of the marriage contract between the two parties in ancient times. The man's family will give the woman a gift in the name of the bridegroom to represent the festive and auspicious wishes.

其中,新娘最有特色的就是彩礼。彩礼是古代两党缔结婚姻的开始。男人的家人将以新郎的名义给女人礼物,代表节日和吉祥的愿望。

However, in certain regions and families in modern times, the bride price has become a deformed custom and has become a heavy burden for some rural male families. It is even linked to the sale of marriage and interference in the freedom of marriage.

然而,在现代的某些地区和家庭中,彩礼已成为一种畸形的习俗,并成为一些农村男性家庭的沉重负担。它甚至与买卖婚姻和干涉婚姻自由有关。

In India, which is connected with the mountains and rivers of our country, the dowry system is a big mountain that weighs on most families. The difference is that the pressure is on the woman's family.

在与我国的山川相连的印度,嫁妆系统是一座重压大多数家庭的大山。不同之处在于女人的家庭承受着压力。

The Indian dowry system refers to the property that the bride’s family pays to the man’s family in cash or in kind. Including but not limited to cash, jewelry, electrical appliances, furniture, vehicles and other household items.

印度的嫁妆系统是指新娘家庭以现金或实物支付给该男子家庭的财产。包括但不限于现金,珠宝,电器,家具,车辆和其他家居用品。

The popularity of this system in India is very wide. With the exception of the Northeast State, almost all ethnic groups and religions jointly follow the customary custom of giving a betrothal gift from a woman to a man.

该系统在印度非常流行。除东北州外,几乎所有民族和宗教都遵循习惯性的习俗,即从女人给男人的订婚礼物。

This vulgarity only began to be re-examined in modern times

这种庸俗直到现代才开始重新审视

(Artwork Picture: Wikipedia)▼

(艺术品图片:维基百科)▼

The amount of the bride price depends on many factors, such as region, caste, education level of the groom, bride’s appearance, etc. Sometimes the negotiation skills of the bride’s family can also affect the amount of the bride price.

彩礼的价格取决于许多因素,例如地区,种姓,新郎的教育程度,新娘的容貌等。有时,新娘家庭的谈判技巧也会影响彩礼的价格。

World Bank scholar Vijayawada Rawa and Indian economics professor Anil Diola Rika of the University of California, Riverside have done statistics. Nowadays, when an Indian woman is married, her family has to pay The cost of buying a lottery can be as high as US$130,000, which is not a small figure for most Indian families.

世界银行学者维杰亚瓦达·拉瓦(Vijayawada Rawa)和加州大学河滨分校的印度经济学教授阿尼尔·迪奥拉·里卡(Anil Diola Rika)进行了统计。如今,当一名印度妇女结婚时,她的家人必须付钱。购买彩票的费用可能高达130,000美元,对于大多数印度家庭来说,这并不是一个小数目。

India's GDP per capita in 2018 was only $2010

印度2018年人均GDP仅为2010美元

The high lottery purchase fee is completely incompatible with the economic situation of Indian nationals

高额的彩票购买费与印度国民的经济状况完全不符

(Image piece: Radiokafka / Shutterstock) ▼

(图片片段:Radiokafka/Shutterstock)▼

This high-priced gift actually comes from the traditional concept of gender and marriage in Indian society. For example, some ethnic minorities in China also do not pay the bride price when they get married, and women bring part of the family property to marry, but this property belongs only to the woman herself, so that women have the ability to be independent when they get married.

这份高价礼物实际上来自印度社会传统的性别和婚姻观念。例如,中国的一些少数民族结婚时也无需支付彩礼,而妇女则将部分家庭财产带到结婚,但这种财产仅属于妇女本人,因此妇女具有独立的能力。他们结婚时。

However, India has traditionally despised women’s personal values ​​extremely and did not believe that women’s husbands and sons at home and cleaning housework are things that create value. If a woman marries the man's house, eats and lives with the man, she must pay a certain price.

但是,印度传统上极度鄙视女性的个人价值观,并且不认为女性的丈夫和儿子在家里和打扫家务是可以创造价值的事物。如果一个女人嫁给男人的房子,与男人吃饭和生活,她必须付出一定的代价。

Even if these men are impoverished at home...

即使这些人在家里很贫穷...

But because of gender advantage, they have the upper hand in the relationship between husband and wife

但是由于性别优势,他们在夫妻关系中占据上风

(图片:Yavuz Sariyildiz / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Yavuz Sariyildiz / Shutterstock)▼

Even worse, in the Indian inheritance system, women do not have the right to directly inherit the family property. Although the "Indian Succession Act" passed into effect in 1956 clearly stipulates that daughters have equal rights in family property, this regulation is often a dead letter in practice.

更糟糕的是,在印度的继承制度中,妇女无权直接继承家庭财产。尽管1956年生效的《印度继承法》明确规定女儿在家庭财产中享有平等的权利,但该规定在实践中常常是一纸空文。

However, this does not mean that Indian parents do not need to save money for their daughters. Parents paying the bridegroom to their daughters are also regarded as a way of property distribution.

但是,这并不意味着印度父母无需为女儿存钱。父母将新郎付给女儿的钱也被视为财产分配的一种方式。

Indian girls are educated since childhood, proud of someone to marry

印度女孩自小就受过教育,以嫁人为荣

Marrying, being a good wife is the growth goal of many girls

结婚,成为好妻子是许多女孩的成长目标

(Photo: Ritesh Ranjan Sett / Shutterstock)▼

(照片:Ritesh Ranjan Sett/Shutterstock)▼

In a family with many girls, their fathers tend to have more pressure. An Indian woman recalled in an interview: When she was young, every time her father was lax and frustrated at work, other relatives would remind him that he had three daughters and he wanted to save money for them money.

在一个有很多女孩的家庭中,他们的父亲往往承受更大的压力。一名印度妇女在一次采访中回忆说:年轻时,每次父亲放松和沮丧时,其他亲戚都会提醒他,他有三个女儿,他想为他们存钱。

Marrying out their daughter early has become the pursuit of many families

早点娶女儿已成为许多家庭的追求

It doesn’t matter even if you’re a minor, there’s even more market

即使您是未成年人也没关系,还有更多的市场

(Image piece: De Visu / Shutterstock) ▼

(图片片:德维苏/舒特斯托克) |

Can women save their own money to pay for the bride price? The answer is yes, but there are no conditions. In India, the illiteracy rate of women is 34%, which is higher than that of men, which is 17%. Moreover, due to the crude way of counting illiteracy in India, even those women who are not defined as “illiterate” may not have sufficient literacy skills.

妇女可以自己存钱来支付彩礼吗?答案是肯定的,但没有条件。在印度,妇女的文盲率为34%,高于男子的文盲率(17%)。此外,由于印度计算文盲的粗略方法,即使那些没有被定义为“文盲”的妇女也可能没有足够的识字能力。

Few women can go to high school or university

很少女性可以上高中或大学

Most of them have no chance to be exposed to ideas such as openness, equality, and women's rights

他们中的大多数人没有机会接触开放,平等和妇女权利等观念

(Photo: Talukdar David / Shutterstock)▼

(照片:Talukdar David / Shutterstock)

In this case, it is difficult for women to find a job that can make ends meet. Although more and more women are joining the labor force, some things are so ingrained in a certain culture and gender politics that it is not easy to get rid of them in a short time.

在这种情况下,女性很难找到可以维持生计的工作。尽管越来越多的妇女加入劳动大军,但某些事情在某种文化和性别政治中根深蒂固,以至于很难在短时间内摆脱它们。

Having a job also represents a certain degree of financial independence

有一份工作也代表了一定程度的财务独立性

Economic independence is a prerequisite for the advancement of women's status

经济独立是提高妇女地位的前提

(Photo: Talukdar David / Shutterstock)▼

(照片:Talukdar David / Shutterstock)

The main reason why the pressure of the bride's family is so high is that the amount of the bride's gift is directly proportional to the woman's quality of life after marriage.

新娘家庭压力如此之大的主要原因是,新娘的礼物量与妇女结婚后的生活质量成正比。

As mentioned above, women doing housework at home are not considered to create value, so women who do not work are regarded as burdens at home. The man must spend a certain amount of money in order to support this "cumbersome", and this money is best not paid by the man himself.

如上所述,在家中做家务的妇女不被认为创造价值,因此不在家工作的妇女被视为家庭的负担。男人必须花一定的钱欧宝体育平台来维持这种“繁琐”,而这笔钱最好不要由他本人支付。

That is, women have to bring their own money and come to men’s homes to give birth and work

就是说,女人必须自掏腰包,到男人家里分娩和工作

Even facing life-threatening

甚至威胁生命

(photo: vibhasrivastava / shutterstock)

(照片:vibhasrivastava/shutterstock)

A women’s organization report pointed out: “A woman’s value is only worth the property she brought. If she unfortunately lives longer and (the cost of raising her) exceeds the dowry, then she will be devalued to be worthy Destroyed or discarded items".

妇女组织的一份报告指出:“妇女的价值仅值于她带来的财产。如果不幸的是,她的寿命更长,并且(抚养她的费用)超过了嫁妆,那么她将被贬值,成为值得被销毁或丢弃的物品。”

This is not alarmist talk. In India, it often happens that because the man's family is dissatisfied with the amount of the bride price paid by the woman's family, criminal behaviors against women, including emotional abuse and physical harm, and even murders occur.

这不是危言耸听的话题。在印度,经常发生这样的情况,因为男人的家庭对妇女家庭所支付的彩礼不满意,因此发生了针对妇女的犯罪行为,包括情感虐待和身体伤害,甚至谋杀。

Even the daughter of a major who has a formal job

甚至是有正式工作的少校的女儿

It’s hard to escape the oppression and harm caused by vices

摆脱恶习的压迫和伤害是很难的

The daughters of many poor families in India are in dire straits

印度许多贫困家庭的女儿陷入困境

(Picture: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/)▼

(图片:https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/)▼

According to data from the National Criminal Records Bureau of India, in 2015, more than 113,000 women were abused by their husbands or relatives in their in-laws, and 7,646 deaths were classified as related to dowry disputes. Every day, about 21 women are killed by their husbands or in-laws because their families cannot meet the dowry requirements.

根据印度国家犯罪记录局的数据,2015年,超过113,000名妇女在其姻亲中遭到丈夫或亲戚的虐待,有7,646例死亡被归类为与嫁妆纠纷有关。每天,约有21名妇女因其家庭无法满足嫁妆要求而被其丈夫或公婆杀死。

More intuitively, every hour and quarter of an hour in the past, an Indian woman who could not pay enough gifts was killed.

更直观地说,在过去的每个小时和一个刻钟中,一名无法支付足够礼物的印度妇女被杀。

And if an Indian girl does not get married in time when she grows up

如果一个印度女孩长大后没有及时结婚

There will be a lot of eyes watching her

会有很多眼睛看着她

Indecency from strangers and acquaintances, rape will ruin their lives

由于陌生人和熟人的dec亵行为,强奸会毁了他们的生活

(Anti-rape rally)

(强奸集会)

(Photo: arindambanerjee/Shutterstock)▼

(照片:arindambanerjee/Shutterstock)▼

The reality is so cruel that the entire dowry system has long been banned by the legislature. In 1961, India promulgated the "Prohibition of Dowry/Dowry Act" and added a provision in the Indian Criminal Law. If the wife complains about the dowry harassment, the groom and his family must be automatically arrested.

现实是如此残酷,以至整个立法系统早已禁止了整个嫁妆制度。 1961年,印度颁布了《禁止欧宝体育平台官网嫁妆/嫁妆法》,并在印度刑法中增加了一条规定。如果妻子抱怨嫁妆骚扰,则必须自动逮捕新郎及其家人。

However, due to the pressure of social customs, the bill does not really protect those women and their families who are troubled by the bride price. Instead, they were treated as bullets for two families to attack each other after conflicts. Therefore, in 2014, the bill was severely restricted and almost existed in name only.

但是,由于社会习俗的压力,该法案并没有真正保护那些受到彩礼困扰的妇女及其家庭。相反,他们被视为两个家庭在冲突后相互攻击的子弹。因此,在2014年,该法案受到严格限制,几乎仅以名称存在。

Women's status is not improved

妇女地位没有改善

The promulgation of a bill is nothing but a dead end

法案的颁布只是死胡同

(图片:Mukesh Kumar Jwala / Shutterstock)▼

(图片:Mukesh Kumar Jwala / Shutterstock)▼

Moreover, the law has a very narrow definition of beauties. Only those voluntarily proposed by the man’s family are called beauties, while those voluntarily given by the woman’s family are called "gifts" in law, and do not apply to the "Prohibition of Beweal/Dowry Law."

此外,法律对美女的定义非常狭窄。在法律上,只有男人的家人自愿提出的那些才被称为美女,而在女人的家人自愿提出的那些才被称为“礼物”,而不适用于“禁止行为/嫁妆法”。

However, the dowry system has a history of hundreds of years in India. Even if the man does not mention it, the woman must give it. This is related to the face and social status of the family. If a father does not give his daughter a gift, he will not only lose his own dignity, but also have a negative impact on the credibility and reputation of the entire family.

但是,嫁妆系统在印度已有数百年的历史。即使男人不提,女人也必须给它。这与家庭的面孔和社会地位有关。如果父亲不给女儿礼物,他不仅会失去自己的尊严,而且会对整个家庭的信誉和声誉产生负面影响。

Frozen three feet is not a day's cold

冻结三脚不是一天的感冒

(Photo: tara hunt / Wikipedia)▼

(照片:塔拉·亨特/维基百科)▼

In this case, the man usually does not ask for the bride price directly, but chooses to tell the bride’s parents: "You can give your daughter whatever you want."

在这种情况下,男人通常不直接索要彩礼,而是选择告诉新娘的父母:“你可以给女儿任何你想要的东西。”

In this way, the amount of the bride price needs to be weighed by the woman's family, which is one of the reasons why the Indian bride price is increasing.

这样,彩礼的价格就需要由妇女的家庭来衡量,这就是印度彩礼价格上涨的原因之一。

Because daughters need a heavy bridegroom burden, many Indians believe that not having a son is the greatest tragedy in life. A family with many daughters but no sons will cause widespread sympathy and even ridicule from surrounding relatives and friends.

由于女儿需要沉重的新郎负担,许多印度人认为,没有儿子是人生中最大的悲剧。一个有很多女儿但没有儿子的家庭将引起广泛的同情,甚至引起周围亲戚和朋友的嘲笑。

This strong demand for sons is even greater than traditional China

对儿子的强烈需求甚至超过了传统中国

(Photo: ManjunathBhat / Shutterstock)▼

(照片:ManjunathBhat / Shutterstock)▼

Therefore, the phenomenon of abandonment and killing of baby girls is very common in rural India. Today, India has 37 million more males than females, and it is difficult for many men living at the bottom of society to find suitable brides.

因此,被遗弃和杀害女婴的现象在印度农村非常普遍。如今,印度的男性人数比女性多3,700万,许多生活在社会底层的男性很难找到合适的新娘。

Even if the dowry requirement is reduced, it is difficult to find girls

即使减少了嫁妆的要求,也很难找到女孩

The evil consequences of East Asia’s "son preference" still have to be tasted by the son

东亚的“儿子偏爱”的邪恶后果仍然必须由儿子来尝尝

(图片:Dmitry Kalinovsky / shutterstock)▼

(图片:Dmitry Kalinovsky / shutterstock)▼

Even so, the treatment of women has not improved, but has deteriorated in the other direction-in some areas of the country, there will be acts of sharing wives between brothers.

即便如此,对妇女的待遇并没有改善,但在另一个方向却有所恶化,在该国的某些地区,兄弟之间会有分担妻子的行为。

Like China, the sky-high price of the bride price is also related to arranged marriages.

像中国一样,彩礼的天价也与包办婚姻有关。

A marriage arranged by parents without emotional foundation is a transaction in itself. As long as the price is right and the conditions of both parties are sufficient to satisfy people, the marriage contract can be concluded.

父母安排的没有感情基础的婚姻本身就是交易。只要价格合适并且双方的条件足以使人们满意,就可以缔结婚姻合同。

Arranged marriage is the continuation of traditional customs

包办婚姻是传统习俗的延续

The new characteristics of the times brought about by development cannot be reflected in the marriage relationship

发展带来的时代新特征不能反映在婚姻关系中

(photo: rinku Dua / shutterstock)

(摄影:市场二号/shutterstock)

Arranged marriages that still exist in contemporary India have laid the foundation for the man’s indiscriminate bidding and the woman’s repayment of money.

在当代印度,仍然存在着包办婚姻,这为男人随意地竞标和女人还钱奠定了基础。

With the development of the times in China, arranged marriages have almost disappeared, and at least both parties can make their own choices. The so-called sky-high price gifts have also been criticized more and more, and are slowly decreasing in the tide of free love.

随着中国时代的发展,包办婚姻几乎消失了,至少双方都可以做出自己的选择。所谓的天价礼物也受到越来越多的批评,并在自由恋爱的潮流中逐渐减少。

This is due to the increased opportunities for young people to receive education

这是由于年轻人接受教育的机会增加了

Have the opportunity to make choices for your life

有机会为您的生活做出选择

(Picture: Figure Worm Creative)▼

(图:蠕虫创意)▼

But the status quo in India seems to be the other way around. Although the dowry system is still a negative term in the Indian media, the system has spread more and more. Originally, some communities did not have such a custom, but recently it has become more and more intense.

但是欧宝体育平台印度的现状似乎恰恰相反。尽管嫁妆系统在印度媒体中仍然是一个负面词,但该系统已越来越广泛地传播。最初,一些社区没有这种习俗,但最近它变得越来越强烈。

Perhaps it is because in most families, the number of sons and daughters are roughly the same. They all hope that they can get more gifts from their married daughter-in-law to pay their daughters.

也许是因为在大多数家庭中,儿子和女儿的数量大致相同。他们都希望自己能从已婚的daughter妇那里得到更多礼物,以支付给女儿。

Every girl born

每个女孩出生

You have to work hard to have a son to offset the burden the daughter brings to the family

您必须努力工作才能生下儿子,以减轻女儿给家庭带来的负担

The combination of sex chromosomes seems to be the original sin

性染色体的结合似乎是原罪

(Picture: https://edition.cnn.com/)▼

(图片:https://edition.cnn.com/)▼

The poorer the family, the more money they want for the gift, and the more they don’t want to give it. This is a vicious balance.

家庭越穷,他们想要的礼物就越多,而他们不想给的礼物就越多。这是恶性的平衡。

The man is totally profitable in the marriage, and he can reap a daughter-in-law once engaged in a marriage, and increase his wealth. Because of this phenomenon, fraudulent marriages have become one of the most profitable businesses in India.

这个男人在婚姻中完全是有利可图的,一旦结婚,他就可以从a妇那里获得收入,并增加财富。由于这种现象,欺诈性婚姻已成为印度最赚钱的业务之一。

In India's blind date market, men with overseas experience were once regarded as sweet pastries. Until a group of men called "fleeing grooms" appeared.

在印度的相亲市场上,具有海外经验的男人曾经被视为甜糕点。直到一群叫“逃离新郎”的男人出现。

If the visa is good, these girls can't wait for a lifetime

如果签证好,这些女孩就不能等一辈子了

(Picture: https://www.sikhnet.com/)▼

(图片:https://www.sikhnet.com/)▼

They all have overseas experience and even foreign nationality. On the surface, they will return to India to participate in a blind date, claiming that they want to find their lifelong lover. After getting engaged, she quickly disappeared after getting the gift money provided by the wife's family and was happy abroad. After spending all the money, I went back to another part of India, forged the previous experience and continued to scam money.

他们都有海外经验,甚至是外国国籍。从表面上看,他们将返回印度参加相亲,声称他们想找到自己的终生情人。订婚后,她在得到妻子家庭提供的礼物后迅速消失了,在国外很开心。花完所有钱后,我回到了印度的另一部分,伪造了以前的经验,并继续骗钱。

In 2005, the Canadian documentary "Runaway Grooms" revealed that such a group of Indian men with a Canadian international, using their convenience to travel between India and Canada, continue to deceive Indian families who want to fish for golden turtles. The family was broken and the people died.

2005年,加拿大纪录片《失控的新郎》(Runaway Grooms)透​​露,这样一群与加拿大人打交道的印度人,利用他们的便利在印度和加拿大之间旅行,继续欺骗想要捕捞金龟的印度家庭。家庭破裂,人民丧生。

And those poor women who choose to fight against the bad guys to the end

那些选择与坏家伙抗争到底的可怜的女人

After endless hearings

经过无休止的听证会

It’s hard to get a satisfactory result

很难获得满意的结果

(Picture: https://www.tribuneindia.com/)▼

(图片:https://www.tribuneindia.com/)▼

The root of the problem lies in this unreasonable dowry system, and the deeper reason is the extreme inequality between men and women in South Asian society.

问题的根源在于这种不合理的嫁妆制度,更深层次的原因是南亚社会男女之间的极端不平等。

The dowry system has reached a weird cycle in India, and the marrying daughter-marrying daughter model is being performed in most families. Some of them are also oppressed by high-priced gifts, but few people think about the problems of the system itself, and even fewer are willing to break it.

印度的嫁妆制度已经达到了一个怪异的周期,大多数家庭都采用了嫁女模式。他们中的一些人也被高价礼物所压迫,但很少有人考虑该系统本身的问题,甚至很少有人愿意破坏它。

In this place of India, the risk of opposing vices is too great..

在印度这个地方,反对恶习的风险太大。

(Image: Tukaram.Karve / Shutterstock) ▼

(图片来源:Tukaram.Karve / Shutterstock)▼

Those families who are impoverished by the bride price will not blame the social atmosphere, but will complain about the gods, why they have given birth to so many girls instead of many boys.

那些因彩礼而贫穷的家庭不会责怪社会气氛,而是会抱怨神灵,为什么他们生了那么多女孩而不是许多男孩。

There is no hope of change for this severe social problem. Only when women’s education level has gone up, they have more job opportunities, and show more value outside their own family. Both parties can provide their own in marriage. Resources, marriage oppression against women will be less.

这个严重的社会问题没有改变的希望。只有当妇女的教育水平提高时,她们才有更多的工作机会,并在家庭之外表现出更多的价值。双方都可以提供自己的婚姻。资源方面,针对妇女的婚姻压迫将会更少。

Women can rely on themselves to gain a foothold in this society

妇女可以依靠自己在这个社会中立足

Can fight for real rights

可以争取物权

(photo: Mohammad shahnawaz / shutterstock)

(摄影:Mohammad shahnawaz/shutterstock)

The most important condition for a marriage between a man and a woman is "fitness."

男女婚姻的最重要条件是“健康”。

This is appropriate, not the price.

这是适当的,而不是价格。

 
 
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